Secret Scotland

If it's secret, and in Scotland…

LNT – I’m not an electrician, but…

It’s true, I’m not an electrician, but my training is way above that level, and I’ve forgotten more about electricity than most people will ever have any need to know.

Sometimes it’s almost funny, as anyone that so much as touches a wire at work these days has to have some useless certificate or other, or they’re not allowed to. Unfortunately, this foolishness and false sense of security is much like my criticism of driver training nowadays, where they’re trained to pass the test, NOT to understand what they are doing.

It’s shocking (no pun intended, but why not), as I’ve asked freshly ‘qualified’, or certified, people some electrical theory questions, and they just don’t have a clue. All they’ve really done is just memorise stuff, not understood it.

Think of signs on building site entrances these days – often showing a picture of ‘REQUIRED PROTECTION’ to be worn or admission to site will be refused. I’ve spotted many of these with hard hats shown – in places where there is NO overhead work underway. But if you try to get in with no hard hat – someone will stop you until you are wearing one.

I’m currently poking around some ancient and original domestic house wiring (if these posts just stop appearing, you can guess why), lovely lead sheathed, natural rubber insulated wires – which, if you’re in this business, you will know the natural rubber has now degraded and become hard, brittle, and ready to crumble if disturbed. If bent, or even just disturbed, the wires within can make contact. This makes a big bang, just before the ancient hand-wired fuses blow and, if you’re really lucky, becomes a permanent short hidden inside the cable. This means that if you rewire the fuse, it blows spectacularly (in your face) every time you insert it into the distribution box.

It’s more spectacular, and noisy, than dangerous (unless you’re the sort of fool that thinks it’s a good idea to keep rewiring the fuse with heavier fuse wire each time).

Electrician wanted

This means working on panels that are at least partially still live and connected to the mains, and I’m now up to making at least FOUR independent checks before I put my fingers anywhere near a circuit, even if I can see it’s isolated. A voltmeter, a circuit tester (basically lights), two basic electric field detectors, and a new, slightly more sensitive field detector. The field detectors are good since they avoid the need to make contact with the wiring (like a meter), but can be too general if there are many live wires nearby, in which case meters, lights, and contact measurements become mandatory.

Even so, I still play safe, and after having to poke around for some wire ends inside the panel (remember, it can have live bits where I’m not actually working), I decided to add some nice Poundland insulated screwdrivers to my vast collection of screwdrivers.

Poundland Insulated Screwdrivers

Poundland Insulated Screwdrivers

They’re surprisingly decent, especially for 25 pence apiece, and better than insulating tape, or other temporary measure to insulate the metal shaft. They may not be officially rated at the more usual 1 kV for such toys, but then again, I don’t have 3-phase or anything more than domestic mains to poke them into – plus, I’ve no intention of using them on actual live wiring or terminals (that’s what the main isolators are for). These are merely ANOTHER level of safety, just in case I miss something, or make a wrong assumption.

It’s just occurred to me that I’ve worked with quite a few ‘sparkies’ who were happy to carry out ‘Hot’ work (on live wiring), and while I’m sure desk-bound, or armchair, ‘experts’ would be horrified, the reality is that it’s not really that dangerous if done correctly, with proper insulation, and space to ensure that even if there’s a slip, then there nothing to make contact with, and complete a circuit with your body.

Working with one hand (so you can’t complete a hand-to-hand circuit through chest and heart) is always a good idea, as is not standing on a conductive surface, which could be a wet, or even just damp, floor. And working on anything over UK mains voltage while live is a very bad idea, especially if it can deliver more than about a mere 7 mA into the impedance of a body. That is going to hurt, while 70 mA is likely to be fatal.

It’s not the voltage that kills, but the current, however current depends on voltage, and the impedance of the body, so it’s not simple…

31/08/2019 Posted by | Civilian | , , , | Leave a comment

Kelvingrove still has power issues

Remember the day Kelvingrove closed, and the media reported electrical issue?

Looks like the venue may have been restored to operation, but the media seems to have failed to notice that there’s still a power problem at the art gallery and museum.

Can you spot the extra bits in this pic?

Kelvingrove with extras

Kelvingrove with extras

I almost missed it!

Then realised it wasn’t just a lorry making a delivery.

It’s a fairly meaty whisper quiet, silenced, mobile generator. I had a poke around, but there was no obvious rating printed anywhere, so the closest I could guess is that it’s probably 1,000 kVA or more, but can’t be sure.

So, there’s clearly still something ‘Not Right’ with the electricity supply here.

There’s a digital panel on the side, but it was too dirty to read, although what I could see referred the fuel tank, not the output.

There’s not much to see (even less to hear – it is well silenced), just a few cables running from the generator to the building.

Kelvingrove generator cables

Kelvingrove generator cables

Not so good from the other side – the security fence kept fooling the autofocus.

Fuzzy Kelvingrove cables

Fuzzy Kelvingrove cables

I’d say something interesting about these, only they’re way bigger than anything I get involved with.

I’m guessing they’re around 400 A and 1 kV or more, with one per phase, as opposed to any sort of multicore system, which is not really used at this level.

20/07/2019 Posted by | Civilian, council, photography | , , | Leave a comment

Battery storage planned for Whitelee wind farm

Although I’m too far from something like the Whitelee wind farm to wander along for a look, I did see it recently as the coach I was headed south out of Glasgow.

It’s not the first time I’ve seen a large wind farm, and used to pass one (and did actually stop and wander to the base of some of the turbines) when I drove south, although I’ve no idea which one it was, or really even where it was now.

Sad to say, I don’t see the ‘horror’ that the various naysayers who campaign against wind farms see. Nor could I see or hear any of the strange side-effects I used to read about in objections and complaints that used to be raised against them. Those stories seem to have disappeared, unless you’re unfortunate enough to let your eyes fall on the moron comment section after any wind farm articles in The Scotsman  – where you will see the same ‘individual’ (who I suspect are NOT individual, but sponsored commenters, funded by activist or campaign groups, given the time they must spend making comments, and the vast number of loony links they have access to).

As someone who spent some time in conventional (fossil fuelled) power stations, none of arguments against wind (or other renewables) seem to make sense nowadays, even the appearance and supposed claims of land and environmental damage seem born of resistance to change rather than reality.

I expect (if I were to offend my eyes and brain by looking) the naysayers will be whining away (somewhere) as usual, against news that Whitelee will have battery storage installed. I remember the first such system being commissioned only a few years ago, amidst scepticism that such a large installation could even be built, or made to work. Sadly, for the naysayers at least, it did, and has since be joined by many others, of various sizes.

Sad to say, such system also upset the naysayers who object to any pumped storage hydroelectric system being added to those already present in Scotland.

I used to know one, until he found out I’d been an electrical engineer – and I burst out laughing the day he tried to convince me that pumped storage was a conspiracy by the electricity companies to boost their profits by selling the same electricity twice, or some such idea. I freely confess I wasn’t listening, especially after I realised he was being serious, and expected me to accept his dogma.

The world is changing, and that change is happening quickly.

It used to take decades for change to happen, now it happens in years.

A huge “super battery” will be built on the site of the UK’s largest wind farm, after plans were approved by the Scottish government.

It will store power generated by the 215 turbines at Whitelee wind farm on Eaglesham Moor, near Glasgow.

Scottish Power, which operates the wind farm, said the battery storage site would be the size of half a football pitch.

Its planned capacity will make it largest wind farm battery in the UK.

The energy firm said the facility would support the National Grid in maintaining the resilience and stability of the electricity grid, even when the wind is not blowing.

It will be able to achieve full charge in less than half an hour.

The battery can been fully discharged or used in bursts as and when required to keep the electricity network stable by balancing supply and demand.

‘Super battery’ for Scottish Power’s Whitelee wind farm

Oh dear, that seems to hit a few naysayer claims on the head.

On the bright side, it gives them a whole new range of option to moan about, and say ‘Nay’ to 🙂

Incidentally, such storage systems are not quite as new and untried or untested as objectors would have you believe – we’ve had such large systems protecting computer and data centres for years. But why let a few facts waste a good naysayer’s fantasies?

We can have a little fun, thanks to this pic they always use to mock such storage.

Giant battery

Giant battery

One’s no use, the trick is use the whole box!



13/06/2019 Posted by | Civilian | , , , , | Leave a comment

Would you rather drown or be electrocuted?

I’ve passed this lifebelt quite a few times, and (as someone involved in electrical safety) can’t help having a little laugh.

I should probably say that this is NOT an official lifebelt post – they are marked by proper identifiers giving safety details, and proper identification of the location to help emergency services, if needed.

Someone has just hung the ring here – which, to be fair, is probably better than throwing it in the river, which some seem to think is fun.

But the real fun would be if there was a bit of (electrical) leakage around here, and the wet lifebelt and rope was thrown to aid some poor sod in the water.

132 kV (that’s 132,000 volts for the non-techs, a little more than the 240 volts found at home) is definitely going to make it along a wet rope and waken up anyone who grabs it.

There would be options – death by drowning, or death by electrocution.

I am kidding here, just because of the sign the ring is hanging from.

You’re not in any electrical danger from this.

The hydrogen dioxide in the river though… that can kill you.

It’s been said that everyone who has drunk the stuff has died, without exception (that’s a joke – look it up).

HV Lifebelt

HV Lifebelt

The local dross has been sticking stickers on the sign, so you can’t see it properly.

Here’s a nice clean one.

Clyde HV Sign

Clyde HV Sign

04/12/2018 Posted by | Uncategorized | , , , , , | Leave a comment

Rare electrical porn

One for my electrical engineering mates.

I spotted this freshly dropped, clean, shiney, transformer for a small substation on a nearby new build.

It will no doubt receive an enclosure soon, so this is probably a rare chance to catch an exposed transformer – although compared to older builds, it’s already pretty well enclosed.

It’s a pity most of these are now completely enclosed, even the older installations in the area have had enclosures built around them, with only a few very small transformers being left open inside fenced enclosures. And really big distribution centres of course, which need space outdoors (due to the very high voltages in used), and connect to overhead lines.

Little Transformer

Little Transformer

I couldn’t make out much of the labelling – it was actually a lot darker than this processed image makes it appear.

I could see a warning regarding sulphur hexafluoride, so this is quite a nice little unit.

Sulphur hexafluoride is used as a gaseous dielectric medium for high-voltage circuit breakers, switchgear, and other electrical equipment, usually replacing oil filled circuit breakers. The pressurised gas is used as an insulator in gas insulated switchgear as it has a much higher dielectric strength than air or dry nitrogen, so allowing its size to be reduced, and increasing reliability.

I did come across SF6 once at work, used to insulate a giant Van de Graaf generator use to produce lethal X-Rays to treat cancer. This was inside a pressurised (with SF6) enclosure weighing tons, and so dangerous the room it was in had a concrete maze you had to take cover in if it was accidentally energised if you were in the room! Unlikely given all the keyed interlocks (and ‘Kill’ switches) that had to be set before it came on, but that last passive defence was still deemed essential.

But, now I’m waffling.

20/05/2018 Posted by | Civilian, photography | , | Leave a comment

Black Wire Syndrome returns on my battery terminal

Many years ago there was an odd phenomenon that raised a great deal of discussion and debate amongst RC (radio control) modellers. It may still do for all I know, but I have lost touch with the subject.

The problem was some sort of corrosion or similar that affected the negative wire of rechargeable battery packs. In some cases, the negative wire would turn black and corrode, in extreme cases, or if not noticed, this wire would even fall apart if left for long enough. It came to be known as Black Wire Syndrome, and notably did not affect just exposed wire, but if the insulation was removed from affected wiring would usually be found along the entire length.

I found it myself in some cases, yet could see nothing common in those that suffered from the effect, or different from those that did not.

I also saw it happen to the wiring inside a battery ‘revitaliser’ I built around the same time. This design was meant to extend the life of ordinary zinc-carbon cells, by extracting the last of their usefulness by applying a ‘dirty dc’ current to them (according to the designer). A steady dc current won’t recharge (for want of a better word) such a cell, but the claim was that rapidly varying dc current would excite the remaining chemicals and extract the maximum from them. It may sound dubious, but it did seem to work.

As regards relevance, after building and using this gadget, I found the negative lead inside the box exhibited this ‘Black Death’ and eventually fell apart.

This came to mind recently when I found that a rechargeable carper sweeper would refuse to charge or switch on reliably, and seemed to be underpowered. I’d rewired it to accept a plug-in charger as the original charger failed, so knew the battery pack and wiring were near new, and checked ok.

By chance, I glanced inside the compartment the battery pack slides into – and saw the problem, highlighted below:

Terminal corrosion

Terminal corrosion

As can be seen, the negative terminal is completely covered by non-conductive black surface corrosion, while the positive terminal remains as bright and shiny as the day it was made.

The black corrosion is deep-seated, penetrating well into the metal of the terminal.

It cannot be brushed off, not will it respond to the gentle abrasion of a fibreglass brush, or even a brass brush.

Steel brushing is needed, or the use of a file or abrasive/sand paper to remove the black material and reach clean metal.

The disadvantage being that this removes any protective plating on the contact, and accelerates the return of the problem.

Replacement of affected wiring, or terminals, is the only effective solution.


This quote from 2015 would appear to show that this phenomenon is as unexplained today as it has always been:

There is plenty of speculation, quite a bit of science and a lot of people pontificating on forums about black wire syndrome, black wire corrosion etc, and it has been a known issue for well over half a century,

The reference to ‘pontificating’ is intriguing since there was much pontificating by people where not engineers, or rather literate in any sort of engineering or science, and their ideas about the causes were more related to black magic and witchcraft than anything practical.

While I won’t go so far as to dismiss any of the (non-magical) theories behind the effect, I won’t accept any of them until I see one that includes an explanation which refers to ions (charged atoms or molecules), since the same gasses or similar that are said to cause it will reach all the wires in the enclosed spaces where the effect is found. Yet only the negative wires are ever affected, not the positive, or any adjacent metalwork.

That this article suggest the phenomenon remains unexplained today is… disappointing.

Black Wire Syndrome

This article manages to turn it into Red Wire Syndrome, but only an industrial application that used a -48 V DC system.

Black Wire Syndrome

And leads to this 2001 article (PDF) about the syndrome in RC planes, which claims to explain it – from a description itself dated 1996). It may, but depends on the presence of NiCads (probably faulty or failing), so is at best only a partial explanation.

Black Wire Disease – What’s the Cause?

The pdf article can’t be quoted, so for those interested, this graphic can be read for that explanation:

Black Wire Syndrome 1996

Black Wire Syndrome 1996

03/03/2017 Posted by | Civilian, photography | , , , | Leave a comment

Life on Muck – almost a modern electrical fable

Solar cell sun

It was fascinating to read the reality of life on the tiny island of Muck, which has just moved into the world of 24-hour mains electricity supply.

Previously, the islanders (numbering 38 at the time of writing) were limited to a schedule, determined by the fuel supply of the island’s diesel generators which first provided electricity in 1970, but could only provide power for 14 hours a day, from 11 am to 5 pm, and 11:30 pm to 7 :30 am. The population has fallen over the years, having peaked around 300 at the start of the 20th century.

This meant using candles or tilley lamps similar for lighting, missing the end of films, and problems with food stored in fridges and refrigerators, with the island’s tearoom having to organise things to make sure provisions were safely stored. The island’s generator was only rated at 10 kW, which meant that users had to arrange schedules for using appliances such as washing machines that drew large amounts of power when operating.

There’s a fair few outright lies being circulated by supporters of Donald Trump, posting comments after articles critical of the Dump to the effect that wind power doesn’t work, but Muck is benefiting from developments in this area (albeit I am not suggesting the island has suddenly grown a giant wind farm), and its new supply is built around a new installation combining six 5 kW wind turbines with a 30 kW solar panel installation.

Muck joins Eigg, where residents now get more than 90% of their electricity from hydro, solar and wind schemes, and micro hydro-electric schemes, wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells saw the Isle of Eigg Heritage Trust named overall UK winner in the Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy for 2011.

The new supply was made possible when Muck Community Enterprise Company received a grant of £978,840 last year,  to help introduce the system of wind turbines and solar panels.

The lack of a continuous electricity supply limited the opportunities for business and growth on the island, but the new supply is hoped to improve this, so the tearoom, hotel, and two B&Bs on the island should benefit from increased numbers of visitors who can also be better catered for.

Muck tearoom 2006

Tea Room area – © Dr Julian Paren via geograph

The selected pic actually shows the parking area for the Tea Room, which is not  actually visible, and lies just off to the left in this view. It’s worth noting that there are no cars on Muck, and visitors get around on bicycles, or by tractor. (Our thanks to the photographer.)

I have to admit to being a little intrigued by the mix of renewables as used on Muck: 5 kW of wind plus 30 kW of solar. Considering the usual image of weather conjured up by thoughts of Scottish islands, and having been on one or two myself, I’d have thought the lion’s share would have gone to wind, with solar acting as the backup.

It will be interesting to see if there is a later story, reporting a change, or if this initial division proves to have been correct.

See Muck switches to 24-hour power supply for first time

And Muck celebrates as it gets electricity 24 hours a day for first time | Highlands & Islands | News | STV

Also Muck gets 24hr electricity supply for first time – Heritage –

30/03/2013 Posted by | Civilian | , , , , | 1 Comment

Glendoe hydro scheme out until 2011

DamAlthough the actual opening of the Glendoe scheme didn’t get a mention, we did note the start of reservoir filling operations back in 2008.

Opened by the Queen in June 2009, the new ÂŁ140 million Glendoe hydro electric scheme near Loch Ness was reported to be expected to be out of action until 2010, and not early on in the year either. A rock fall which had taken place during August, near the top of one of the tunnels, was then described as “very substantial”, and led to closure of the tunnel which carries water from the reservoir to the turbines.

Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) said: “SSE is now working with its principal contractor and others to determine how best to effect the necessary repairs and achieve a resumption of electricity generation at the site, but this will not take place until well into 2010 at the earliest.”

Things had looked bad after the initial report, and only got worse as investigations continued.

The anticipated date for return to service of the Glendoe scheme has been further revised, and Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) has now said it was unlikely the plant would be running again until April 2011.

The damage is such that the operator is considering construction of a new tunnel, which may have to be built to bypass the damaged section at Glendoe.

Reminds me of the days when I had to deal with irate customers that would bring in broken equipment looking for repair quotations, and who wouldn’t listen when I told them they could have an estimate. They couldn’t (or wouldn’t) grasp the concept that I could assign an engineer to repair the obvious fault they brought their kit in with, but that from experience, we know that this apparent symptom would almost certainly only be sign of more underlying problems which would have caused, or been caused by, the apparent problem.

I can only imagine the problems of dealing with problems buried in a tunnel.

12/11/2009 Posted by | Civilian | , , , , , | Leave a comment

Power Plants Around the World

powerplantWith little but glum news floating around at the moment, I’m thinking things around the news feeds are so depressing that I might revert to the original posting plan which just dropped in the occasional note concerning interesting items that were broadly, or even just tenuously, associated with the overall theme, regardless of where in the world it may refer to.

Maybe the local stuff only work around the summer, when people are in a better mood and more likely to be out to play.

Even though the story about suicides rates increasing at this time of year has been shown to be just that, a story with no basis in records, at the moment, it’s easy to see why it could be believed without analysis.

Roll on spring and summer.

On that note, I came across a handy site that’s probably worth hiding away in a bookmark, and it’s Power Plants Around the World.

It’s a fascinating site for anyone with an interest in engineering, and provides photographs of… power plants around the world. It doesn’t claim to be exhaustive or complete, but it does provide a glimpse of plants in places most of us would be unlikely to to see.

It does also suffer a number of omissions, if you happen to know your local area and what is installed there, but many of the missing subjects are generally well known and can be found elsewhere, and the inclusion (for Scotland at least) of many small and little known power stations more than makes up for not having some of the better known sites on board.

27/12/2008 Posted by | Civilian | , , | Leave a comment

New hydro-electric station announced in Perthshire

I’ve banged on in here for a while (and probably still will) about water-based power, lamenting the endless worship of the holy god of wind power, and how anyone serious about renewable or alternative energy production had better start looking elsewhere or we’ll be up a river – or all at sea – without a paddle when the wind money (or supply of acceptable sites) dries up, or realisation dawns that while it is certainly not a dead dog (I’ve never said that, and never would), it is not the magical answer to renewables that some would have them believe.

The Scottish Government’s target is to produce 50% of the country’s electricity from renewables by 2020, and that won’t happen without a balanced or integrated approach.

Ambling through the headlines over the past few weeks, it’s been gratifying to note a steady increase – at last – of schemes looking towards the wet stuff as a source of power, and I’ve mentioned quite a few in here recently.

I also postulated the need to look at smaller hydro-schemes since all the large, prime sites had already been used in the past decades. A comment I made just before those in a position to do something about it made a public announcement to the same effect – thank goodness I published first, a few posts back.

I’m pleasantly surprised to see that the momentum of the past few weeks is continuing, and that plans to build a new hydro-electric station in Highland Perthshire have just been given the go-ahead by the Scottish Government. The 2 MW Keltney Burn scheme near Aberfeldy is a ‘run-of-river’ project, which means it will use its elevation and natural flow to generate electricity, and is described as being able to produce enough energy to power 1,300 homes.

Energy Minister Jim Mather said: “This is a tangible demonstration that new hydro power has a bright future in Scotland. We need to harness all of Scotland’s diverse renewables potential, and provided schemes operate in harmony with the environment, we will continue to support hydro development – large or small – to help tackle climate change and contribute to sustainable economic growth.”

(Here’s hoping that’s not forgotten when folk go looking for development cash).

North Tayside MSP John Swinney added: “I am delighted to hear that this project has been given the go-ahead. This is a project that will benefit the local area. This decision has been a long time coming, but now that it has been approved, I hope that it will get up and running to make a difference to surrounding communities.”

24/09/2008 Posted by | Civilian | , , , | Leave a comment

Where do I send the fee note?

Yesterday, in the post that immediately precedes this one, I noted that the first large-scale hydro-electric project since 1957, the ÂŁ140 million Glendoe hydro power scheme near Fort Augustus had its first sluice gate closed by First Minister Alex Salmond today (September 1, 2008), signalling the start to the filling of the scheme’s dam.

I concluded that post by saying:

With increasing environmental awareness, and the loss of land to the dams and reservoirs such schemes demand, it’s much more difficult to find a site that meets all the criteria of terrain that is both suitable for damming to create a reservoir that will hold sufficient water at the required elevation, and is acceptable in terms of the losses that will be incurred as a result of the consequent flooding.

This thought is confirmed by Scottish and Southern Energy, which has said it considers Glendoe to be the last large scale hydro power scheme that will ever be built in the UK as environmental constraints makes it harder to find suitable land for such developments to be created in the future.

Maybe a signal that the last scheme of this size (100 MW) has been built, but perhaps the future will see more serious consideration being given to smaller schemes that can provide local power without the impact associated with the grander constructions of the past.

Today, the Forum for Renewable Energy Development said an extra 650MW of hydro power could be produced by hundreds of small projects. That would be enough to power about 600,000 homes, and is about half the amount of installed hydro capacity which already exists in Scotland. With its ambitious scheme to see Scotland generate 50% of its electricity demand from renewable sources by 2020, the Scottish Government was quick to jump on this, and say hydro was vital to meeting green energy targets

Installed hydro-electric capacity in Scotland is already 1,379 MW, said to be 6% of the country’s total electricity requirement.

Report author Nick Forrest, a director of consultants Nick Forrest Associates, told BBC Radio’s Good Morning Scotland programme that although Scotland had greater potential for wind power, hydro had the benefit of not having the visual impact of wind farms, and was more reliable as a source of energy.

That’s almost a word-for-word quote of what I wrote yesterday – where’s my cheque? 🙂

Funny, when I say say that everyone shakes their head and says “tut-tut”, and someone calls the men in white coats – as if I’m some sort of mad heretic refusing to worship at the altar of the holy god of wind power.

Following on almost exactly from my advice, he went on to say:

We are talking about enough to power perhaps 600,000 houses – more than enough to power Edinburgh, say, so it is a lot. This is not talking about flooding gigantic valleys like the Three Gorges project in China, it is not looking at more Glendoe projects, this is starting from the ground up, what we call small hydro.It tends to be up to 10MW, so you do not need to flood a valley. In some cases the model did look at storage schemes, but most of these are what we call run of river – you would be using a weir and relying on the fall of the water down a hillside, so the impact can be very, very minimal.

The Scottish Government has set a target of generating 50% of the country’s electricity demand from renewable sources by 2020, with a target of 31% by 2011.

Welcoming the report, David Williams, chief executive of the British Hydropower Association, said: “Hydropower has long been the “quiet” renewable and this will stimulate development of new projects of all sizes in a country which has already embraced the benign and significant role of this technology.”

I’m only kidding about the cheque, of course (but it would be a nice surprise) however, it does go towards proving the old saying that It’s not what you know, but who you know.

02/09/2008 Posted by | Civilian | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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